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The Basics Of Water Filtration

Jun 8, 2008
Water filtration is the process of separating impurities from water. We are able to make this process work using water filters. Filtration can be done using physical barriers, different chemical processes, or biological processes. Filters are used to purify drinking water, swimming pools, and irrigation.

There are many different types of common filters. There are media filters, which use sand to filter water as it moves from below the rock and sand to the surface. Screen filters, which utilize a screen that separate fine particles out of the water for irrigation among other things. Disk filters are the main water filters for irrigation. It is much like the screen filter, but instead of a screen it uses small disks stacked on top of each other in order to separate the impurities.

Slow sand filters are used to treat raw water found on the surface of the earth. They are usually between one and two meters deep. This system uses a layer of earth called the Schmutzdecke layer which contains bacteria and fungi. This layer purifies the water leaving exceptionally clean water at the top.

Rapid sand filters or rapid gravity filters are forms of filtration used municipal water treatment facilities. Coarse sand is used to remove the particles that were previously trapped in flocks by salts of aluminum or iron. The simplest filter still in use today is the cloth filter. This filter can be dangerous because it is not very effective. It is done by using a folded cloth placed in a container. The container is dipped in water and then raised. The cloth is lifted from the container and the filtered water will move through the cloth and into the container.

There are forms of filtration that do not involve physical screens to filter the water. Ultra violet rays can be used as a way to filter water. Exposing water to ultra violet rays can remove all viruses and bacteria. It is usually used in raw water applications but has an increasing use in filtering drinking water. New York has already improved the construction of a drinking water disinfection facility that will be capable of producing two billion gallons of water a day.

Reverse osmosis is a process that applies pressure to a membrane in order to force water through, trapping the solvent. Most of the separation occurs within the outer layer of the membrane called the polymer matrix. This filtration process requires a great amount of pressure to be put upon the membrane. The membrane is known as a semi permeable, which means the membrane only allows a solute to pass through trapping the solvent.

In order to purify the air around us catalytic converters are now being placed on automobiles in order to lower their pollution emissions. The device cleans the gases that are expelled from the vehicle while driving.

Water filtration is one of the most beneficial ideas the human race has proposed. Early forms of water filters allowed man to live in some of the harshest climates on earth. There will never be a time when water filters are not necessary for our survival.
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