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What is Glucose And Its Function

Jun 21, 2008
Glucose is also called blood sugar as it circulates in the blood at a concentration of 65-110 mg/mL of blood. Glucose-6-phosphatase dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency is the most common disease-producing enzymopathy in humans.

Inherited as an X-linked disorder, G-6-PD deficiency affects 400 million people worldwide. Glucose, with six carbon atoms, has four asymmetric carbon atoms (marked in this diagram with *). The arrangement of the OH's and H's on these atoms is very important.

Glucose may be estimated by means of the polarimeter, i.e. If a glucose solution be added to copper sulphate and much alkali added, a yellowish-red precipitate of cuprous hydrate separates, slowly in the cold, but immediately when the liquid is heated; this precipitate rapidly turns red owing to the formation of cuprous oxide .

Glucose can be thought of as a derivative of hexane (a 6-carbon chain) with -OH groups attached to every carbon except the endmost one, which exists as an aldehyde carbonyl. However because the chain is flexible it can wrap around until the 2 ends react together to form a ring structure.

Glucose readings are not linear over their entire range. If you get an extremely high or low reading from your meter, you should first confirm it with another reading.

Glucose is a type of sugar and the main source of energy used by your body. The glucose that your body uses for energy comes from many kinds of foods called carbohydrates, such as cereal, bread, rice, pasta, and other grains, not just sugary foods. Glucose is a major source of energy for most cells of the body.

Some cells (for example, brain and red blood cells) are almost totally dependent on blood glucose as a source of energy. Glucose can form from formaldehyde under abiotic conditions, so it may well have been available to primitive biochemical systems. Probably more important to advanced life is the low tendency of glucose, by comparison to other hexose sugars, to nonspecifically react with the amino groups of proteins.

Glucose is critical in the production of proteins and in lipid metabolism. Also, in plants and most animals, it is a precursor for vitamin C (ascorbic acid) production. Glucose in the bloodstream diffuses into the cytoplasm and is locked there by phosphorylation.

A glucose molecule is then rearranged slightly to fructose and phosphorylated again to fructose diphosphate. Glucose Tolerance Tests (GTTs) determine how quickly glucose is cleared from the blood after glucose administration. Blood glucose levels are measured using Johnson and Johnsons OneTouch Ultra Blood Glucose Monitoring System immediately prior to glucose administration, and at 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after glucose administration (timing of glucose measurement can be modified on request).

Glucose meters are either heavily discounted or distributed free with the purchase of multiple packs of glucose strips. This is forcing participants to amortise the cost of meters over a given time period. Glucose is one of the primary molecules which serve as energy sources for plants and animals.

It is found in the sap of plants, and is found in the human bloodstream where it is referred to as "blood sugar". Glucose is produced commercially via the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch. Many crops can be used as the source of starch.
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