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The Progress of Porcelain in Germany

Aug 17, 2007
Some the places in Germany like Hochst, near Frankfort, Berlin, Furstenburg, near Cassel, Nymphenburg, near Munich, and Ludwigsburg, near Stuttgart produced wares of hard-paste types with varying quality and designs.

Other factories in Germany were founded about the middle of the eighteenth century and each produced hard-paste wares of varying quality and interest. They include:

Hochst, near Frankfort (West Germany)
The best-known figures are a series of children, which are very carefully modeled and painted, and have been copied during the past hundred years in both porcelain and pottery. The factory mark, which has also been imitated, is a spoked wheel in blue or red.

A wool-merchant named Wilhelm Wegely started a factory in 1752 but it was unsuccessful and closed five years later. In 1761 a financier named Gotzkowsky it was bought by the King of Prussia, Frederick the Great, in 1763, opened a further factory. Wares similar to, and in imitation of, Dresden was made but the china is colder in appearance and the colorings tend to be more vivid. In the nineteenth century the factory made copies of oil paintings in miniature on flat slabs of the ware, and also made lithophanes. These are panels of biscuit-ware stamped in intaglio so that they appear in light and shade when held against a window or light. The mark commonly found is a sceptre in under glaze blue, with or without the letters 'K.P.M.'.

Furstenburg, near Cassel (West Germany)
This factory was started in 1753, and after initial difficulties produced good quality wares of all types in the Dresden manner. Simon Feilner, who had worked at Hochst, modeled some outstanding figures and a unique set of fifteen of these was sold in London in July 1960, for £15,000. The factory is still in operation. The mark is a script letter V in blue; on modern pieces it has a crown above.

Nymphenburg, near Munich (West Germany)
Although all types of wares were made at this Bavarian factory, its name is linked with that of the Swiss-born modeller, Franz Anton Bustelli, who created a number of superb figures. Of all porcelain figures, English or Continental in origin, these, possessing both grace and action and with their soft and careful coloring are surely the most exciting and satisfying made anywhere. Bustelli's figures were made in the first instance between 1754 and 1763, but the moulds were re-used by the factory at a later date. The Nymphenburg works is still in operation. The principal mark is an impressed shield with diamond-shaped checks.

Ludwigsburg, near Stuttgart
The porcelain made at Ludwigsburg from 1758 was not of a white colour, but tended to a smoky brown in tone. Figures were a large proportion of the output, and these included a series of miniature groups, some of market-stalls with their wares and attendants, and some attractive figures of dancers. The factory closed in 1824. The mark comprises two letter 'c's back to back, sometimes with a crown above, in blue.

There were a number of other factories of varying importance, each copying Dresden and one another, and occasionally producing original work of above-average quality. Some of them used their own marks, some used imitations of Dresden, but most of them marked only a few of their productions and there are large numbers of unmarked pieces which it is difficult or impossible to allocate to any particular factory.

These above places produce some of the finest qualities of porcelain wares in Germany in the eighteenth century. They produced their own styles porcelain and also imitated others from within and from outside the country as well.
About the Author
Mitch Johnson is a regular writer for http://www.kids-games-n-crafts.com/ , http://www.ezcraftshub.info/ , http://www.bathroomaccessoriesmadeeasy.info/
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