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The Technology and Functioning of the Full Range Loudspeakers

Nov 18, 2007
There are a number of full range loudspeakers such as Lowther, Fostex, Diatone and many more. They can cover most of the major frequency span produced by human voice and common musical instruments without a crossover to another driver. A full range loudspeaker drive unit is known to reproduce as much of the audible frequency range as possible with a high quality reproduction of sound. This is very faithful to the original master recording. In other words, it has high fidelity. It can reproduce sound within the boundaries imposed by the physical limitations of the specific design.

There are only a few manufacturers producing full range loudspeakers, because of its high fidelity use. A full range drive unit consists of a single driver element, or a voice coil. They are used to control and move a diaphragm. Usually, the cone structure of the full range drive unit includes the optimizations to enhance a high frequency performance. The shape and the materials used in the cone of such one loudspeaker are generally optimized as well.

The technique for using a compliantly coupled or modified diaphragm for the low frequencies, auxiliary whizzer or a modified dust cap, is a kind of mechanical crossover. A modified dust cap is also known as a dome for the high frequency response of a speaker. Mechanical crossover is commonly found in full range loudspeakers designed to cover as much of the audio band as possible.

The requirements to design a full range loudspeaker include two of the most important features, the low and the high frequency response. A full range driver is generally limited to cover the audio spectrum of the range above perhaps 100 hertz. This excludes the lower frequencies, they are usually handled or amplified by a separate sub woofer or by a cabinet specially designed for low frequency reinforcement.

The full range speaker must have good sensitivity for lower frequencies including a light voice coil for high frequencies. These speakers use much larger and powerful magnet than any other usual speakers. This improves the sensitivity. On the other hand it lowers the power requirements at low frequencies as well as allowing a lighter voice coil.

There are a wide variety of full range loudspeakers at different prices. The cost of a full range drive unit is based on its application ranging from inexpensive multimedia loudspeakers, to costly esoteric cabinets. The esoteric cabinets use larger transmitting line or horn loaded enclosures to increase low frequency output.

Critics have cited the inability to reproduce fast and complex musical forms of the full range loudspeakers. They have cited that the reproduction of the low frequencies with the same diaphragm, which also handles high frequencies, causes a Doppler distortion when one surface attempts to produce both concurrently. They also cited that the full range loudspeakers have reduced the output at the extreme, as they occasionally result in a boxy or a bandwidth limited midrange sound without much treble.
Besides all the critical comments cited above, there are many advantages associated with full range loudspeakers. It contains all the speaker elements in one basket. They consist a woofer for the low frequencies and a tweeter mounted onto the woofer to produce the high frequencies.
About the Author
Victor Epand is an expert consultant for music gear, speakers, and microphones. You can find the best marketplace for music gear, speakers, and microphones at these 3 sites: music gear, music equipment, speakers, full range loudspeakers, and microphones.
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