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Labor Law in Thailand

Dec 18, 2007
In Thailand, all of the rights and duties pertaining to employers and employees are usually governed by a series of laws and regulations. Among the different acts that govern labor issues in Thailand are Labor Protection Act BE 2541, the Labor Court and Labor Court Procedure BE 2522, Labor Relations Act BE 2518, Social Security Act BE 2533, Thai Civil and Commercial Code, Provident Fund Act BE 2530, and Workmen's Compensation Act BE 2537.

Usually, according to the employment law in Thailand, an agreement that has been established between the employer and employee should not be less than the minimum requirements or standards devised by the law.

The Labor Protection Act and other relevant acts dealing with the labor issues have set some specific rules and regulations for each and every aspect with regard to an employment such as working hour, remuneration, child labor, female labor, sick and maternity leave, dismissal as well as termination of employees, welfare and social security of employees, and hiring of employees services.

Working hours in an organization is usually on the basis of nature and type of work. In most cases, working hours should not go above eight hours per day or 48 hours each week. In case of such works that are harmful for the health of an employee, then working hours should not exceed seven hours a day or 42 days a week.

Under the Thai employment law, an employee's maximum probationary period is 120 days. Further, the Labor Law entails every employer in Thailand to provide its employees at least 13 public days each year and at least six vacation leaves on completion of a year's services.

Likewise, employees are eligible for annual sick leave of 30 working days each year. Apart from sick leave, pregnant employees are eligible for maternity leave of 90 days with 45 days' full wages. When comes to remuneration, an employer is required to pay all benefits, apart from normal salary, that form part of the employment. In addition, the basic remuneration paid by an employer must be in accordance with the minimum wage as prescribed by the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare.

Al though, male and female employees are treated alike in a employment, a female employee is prohibited from working in certain organizations or work environments such as construction as well as mining work which are performed underwater, tunnel, or underground, and transportation and production working conditions in which it is necessary to deal with inflammable or explosive items.

Likewise, there are also certain exceptions for pregnant female employees. In other words, an employer should not ask a pregnant employee to work overtime as well as work on public holidays. Further, they are also not allowed to work in certain environments such as on plants, construction firms where it is necessary to carry loads on heads or shoulders, and ships and other water going vessels.

In the case of child labor, the minimum age in order to employ a child labor is 15 years of age. But, to employ a child below the age of 18 years, it is necessary for an employer to notify it to the labor inspector within 15 days as of the date that the child starts his work. An employer is required to give a child labor a rest period of one hour for every four hours he has worked.

Similarly, an employer should not ask a child employee below 18 years to work overtime or on holidays. Additionally, child labors below 18 years are not allowed to perform dangerous works such as rolling as well as stamping metal and works dealing with unsafe chemicals and poisonous microorganisms.

A child below the age of 18 years is also strictly prohibited from certain establishments such as gambling centers, slaughterhouses, dance clubs, and center where liquors and other related beverages are served. Above all, an employer is required to pay the remuneration or benefits of child employees only to child employees and not to any other persons other than the employees.

Now we will discuss laws and regulations pertaining to termination and dismissal. A notice in writing must be provided to an employee prior to his termination. However, according to the Labour Protection Act BE 2541 (1998), an employer can dismiss or terminate an employee without any notice or severance payment in any of these following circumstances such as

- Performing his or her duties and responsibilities dishonestly
- Committing any kind of criminal offense
- Negligence from the part of employee that leading to serious damage or loss to the employer
- Disobeying working rules and regulations devised by the employer
- On imprisonment as per the final judgment of imprisonment

Nowadays, a lot number of law firms are in Thailand to help you dealing with the Thai labor law. Usually, these law firms provide a continuum of services in connection with labor issues such as labor disputes, labor court representation, payroll issues, social security, labor law compliance issues, and more.
About the Author
For nearly 30 years, Bamrung Suvicha Apisakdi Law Associates (BSA Law) has focused on providing reliable legal advice and services to the Thai and foreign business community in Thailand. We provide international standards of legal services while retaining the customs of the Thai business culture.
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